Please select the correct answer and at the end of the test, you have to click on ' SUBMIT ' button to see your Score and the Correct Answers. Genome organization of soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV). Common plant viruses include mosaic viruses, spotted wilt viruses, and leaf curl viruses. The Herpesviridae are a large family of double-stranded DNA viruses responsible for many human and veterinary diseases. Among RNA viruses and certain DNA viruses, the genome is often divided up into separate parts, in which case it is called segmented. This process is mediated by three distinct functions of IN. There is also a blank version where you can colour in the complementary bases yourself. Like tiny rechargeable batteries,. Single Stranded DNA (ssDNA) vs Double Stranded DNA (dsDNA): Similarities and Differences ssDNA vs dsDNA - A Comparison Table The DNA molecules are not always double stranded helical structures, sometimes they occur in single stranded form called ssDNA. the associated diseases (poliovirus, rabies) the type of disease caused (murine leukemia virus) the sites in the body affected or from which the virus was first isolated (rhinovirus, adenovirus). - The term virus was coined by Pasteur, and is from the Latin word for poison. unlikely that the invading viral DNA will have been methylated so it will be an appropriate target for cleavage. Please login to create a new submission or to see your existing submissions. Release of new viruses. A viral protein VP16 (tegument) enters the nucleus and binds to viral genome. The viral isolate from the patient was closely similar to that from an epidemiologically linked market chicken. Together, the cDNA and its complement form a double-stranded viral DNA that is then transported into the cell nucleus. Assembly of parts into new viruses. DNA technology has also been used to increase plant resistance to disease by reengineering the plant to produce viral proteins. The smallest viruses have only four genes, while the largest have several hundred. The key to understanding the function of DNA molecule is layered on the pattern of bases along one strand, of the two, that is formed, that is being transcribed into RNA and therefore being. A computer virus, much like a flu virus, is designed to spread from host to host and has the ability to replicate itself. Disease tolerance strategies include providing energy substrates that aid in the metabolic adaptation required for host survival (7–9). Antigens Some chemical that creates immune response Most are proteins or large polysaccharides from a foreign organism. The infectious ("Dane") particle consists of an inner core plus an outer surface coat. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. Accordingly, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is the name of the virus isolated in Israel. Get the latest updates available for your computer's operating system, software, and hardware. DNA and RNA replication. Transparency shows relationship between activities and sites in the host cell. GOLD: Genomes Online Database, is a World Wide Web resource for comprehensive access to information regarding genome and metagenome sequencing projects, and their associated metadata, around the world. DNA demethylation is the removal of a methyl group from DNA. Dengue virus particle and microscopic picture of dengue viruses DENV is a 50-nm virus enveloped with a lipid membrane (see figure 1). Single-stranded DNA Viruses Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms. 1971 Sep;35(3):235-41] omitted the gapped DNA genome which had not yet been discovered. For instance, DNA in humans determines such things as what color the eyes are and how the lungs work. The replication of the genome is essential for the continuity of life. There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous tumors and benign tumors. Explain the inner working of your body with the help of free Biology PowerPoint backgrounds. In this sense, then, diploid organisms (like ourselves) contain two genomes, one inherited from our mother, the other from our father. The latter set of viruses (B) consisted of radioactive protein but not radioactive DNA. Animal cells don't have cell walls. HIV-1 has two, one near the 30 end of the RNA, the other (the central ppt) near the middle of the genome. The viral DNA takes over as terminal protein attached to the end of the DNA strand initiates transcription. Request the PowerPoint slide set Give Birth to the End of Hep B: What Hospitals Need to Do to Protect Newborns A presentation about the importance of the hepatitis B vaccine birth dose and IAC’s Hepatitis B Vaccine Birth Dose Honor Roll. Replication takes place in cytoplasmic viral factories. However, the genome was best described by a single promoter model. The viral genome is large,. Teachers: You can purchase this PowerPoint from my. In contrast to cells that grow from an increase in the number of their components and reproduce by division, viruses are assembled from pre-made components. All retroviruses have at least one ppt. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. GENOME SEQUENCING. Viruses can only replicate themselves by infecting a host cell and therefore cannot reproduce on their own. Landmarks of the HIV-1 genome, HXB2 (). Habibi Najafi Parnian Pezeshki Department of Food Science & Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran Abstract Mutation is a very important concept in biology today that leads to variations in genes. The bacterium containing a prophage is immune to the infection by the same virus. Large DNA viruses encode many proteins involved in DNA synthesis 2. When found outside of host cells, viruses exist as a protein coat or capsid, sometimes enclosed within a membrane. Microsatellites are short pieces of DNA which repeat many times in a given person's DNA. ppt [Read-Only]. PowerPoint template download, PowerPoint material download, PowerPoint tutorial, PowerPoint material, PowerPoint Background. These "targets" should generally be as unlike any proteins or parts of proteins in humans as possible, to reduce the likelihood of side effects. The type of nucleic acid is irrelevant to the shape of the genome. Most of plant virus infect a limited number of different plant species and a few have a wide host range. • Nucleocapsid: –viral nucleic acid + the protein coat that encloses it. As their names imply, DNA viruses contain DNA as their genetic material while RNA viruses contain RNA as their genetic material. Em um experimento, foi produzido um vírus contendo DNA do bacteriófago T2 e cápsula do bacteriófago T4. Viruses are infectious pathogens that cause serious diseases & major threats for global public health, such as influenza, hepatitis, & AIDS. Before a cell divides, it fi rst duplicates its DNA so that the new cell will have the same genetic information. For example a transposable element named feilai has more than 50000 copies interspersed in the genome. Most of plant virus infect a limited number of different plant species and a few have a wide host range. Small DNA viruses encode at least one protein involved in DNA synthesis C. You inherit half your DNA from your mother and half from your father, so you have 2 copies of every gene. RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) RNA is a nucleic acid consisting long chain of nucleotide units. These "targets" should generally be as unlike any proteins or parts of proteins in humans as possible, to reduce the likelihood of side effects. Using good template and primer, Taq/dye-terminator cycle sequencing will provide 500-600 bases of sequence with a 98-99% accuracy (exceptional template-primer combinations will yield 650-750 bases with 98% accuracy). Examples; Reo virus is a RNA virus which contains ds. Replication of an enveloped DNA virusEnveloped virus has a different way of infectingeukaryotic cells. The host for infection was E. This precursor is only 5% as abundant as the Gag pre-cursor and is produced by translational read-through of the gag termination codon. The strength of Science and its online journal sites rests with the strengths of its community of authors, who provide cutting-edge research, incisive scientific commentary, and insights on what. Interferon alpha is used to treat lymphoma and myelogenous leukemia. Directly after injection, the left end of the genome is transcribed by host RNA polymerase before the rest of the genome enters into the. While in this form outside the cell, the virus is metabollically inert; examples of such. However, the genome was best described by a single promoter model. , Microbial Life, First Edition, published by Sinauer Associates. Viral mRNAs are then translated, using host cell ribosomes, tRNAs and amino acids, into viral proteins such as the coat or tail proteins. HIV-1 has two, one near the 30 end of the RNA, the other (the central ppt) near the middle of the genome. Prophase refers to a) Viral genome outside the host cell b) Viral genome that integrates with the bacterial genome c) Viral genome in the culture medium d) Newly synthesized viral genome within the host cell 18. This organization allows the virus to maximize production of structural genes, since viral assembly requires more structural proteins to be made than non-structural proteins. viral genes and containing DNA sequences of interest for various therapeutic applications has thus far proven to be one of the safest strategies for gene therapies. A virus is a microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a biological organism. 2 Parvovirus is 20 nm in diameter Infects algae Viral genomes range in size 2,000 bp to 1,200,000 bp Comparison Between Cellular Genome and Viral Genome Viral genome 2-1,200 Kb Encoded proteins: 2-1,200 Compact and. • TWO envelopes, nucleocapsid/genome (200 genes) • DNA and RNA Pol enzymes in virus - MANY others • Virus DNA Pol replicates and RNA Pol transcribes • Host ribosomes translate - ALL occurs in cytoplasm • Exit via Golgi AND cell membrane - so? Why is this virus not associated with cancer?. Nomenclature & classification of Plant Viruses Viruses are the entities whose genome is a nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA, which reproduce inside living cells and use their synthetic machinery to direct the synthesis of specialized particles, the virions which contain the viral genome and transfer it to other cells. • TWO envelopes, nucleocapsid/genome (200 genes) • DNA and RNA Pol enzymes in virus - MANY others • Virus DNA Pol replicates and RNA Pol transcribes • Host ribosomes translate - ALL occurs in cytoplasm • Exit via Golgi AND cell membrane - so? Why is this virus not associated with cancer?. This precursor is only 5% as abundant as the Gag pre-cursor and is produced by translational read-through of the gag termination codon. Explore: Difference Between Virus And Bacteria. Partially double stranded and single stranded. Some viruses encode all proteins needed for DNA replication. Virus particles are about one-millionth of an inch (17 to 300 nanometers) long. All Rights Reserved. It remains peacefully there. They are not related; however, AAV requires the presence of adenoviral genes E1, E4, E2a and VA for replication. Components of viruses - A virion is an infectious virus particle - not all virus particles are infectious Viruses are composed of a nucleic acid, RNA or DNA - never both. CrystalGraphics brings you the world's biggest & best collection of virus genome PowerPoint templates. As we have reviewed, papillomaviruses use a very economic way to express their genes from a very compact genome and the resulting transcripts are either bicistronic or polycistronic, with. RNA & DNA viruses :3 1. This precursor is only 5% as abundant as the Gag pre-cursor and is produced by translational read-through of the gag termination codon. Transformation is uptake of foreign DNA from a dead cell. Os cientistas conseguem construir partículas virais ativas com DNA de uma espécie e cápsula de outra. Bacteriophage means to eat bacteria, and are called so because. • A gene is a specific sequence of bases which has the information for a particular protein. Viruses come in two basic types, those that have a genome of DNA and those that have a genome of RN. direct) repeat sequences. CD genomics can deliver high quality sequencing data for your virus genome of interest. The viruses were allowed to infect bacteria by removing the viral coats through a number of blending and centrifugation. © 2000-2018 The Regents of the University of California. Seach for: vaccination and virus. Microbial whole-genome sequencing is an important tool for mapping genomes of novel organisms, finishing genomes of known organisms, or comparing genomes across multiple samples. The synthesis of early proteins is the key initial step in viral DNA replication. ppt), PDF File (. Unlike in eukaryotes, there is a single circular DNA exists in prokaryotes. Replication of Small DNA Virus Animal Virus DNA Genomes Larger size range (5 200 kbp) than RNA viruses Similar to host genome, may use cell machinery for DNA – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow. There are two main types of influenza (flu) virus: Types A and B. RNA is an intermediary between DNA and protein. Partially double stranded and single stranded. The influenza A and B viruses that routinely spread in people (human influenza viruses) are responsible for seasonal flu epidemics each year. These findings were supported by the. For monopartite ssRNA viruses, the genome encodes a single polyprotein. However, extracting DNA from blood has its downfalls. PPT – INFLUENZA A VIRUS GENOME PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 3e7c9-NjdjZ. Virus infects other bacteria and transfer genes of donor bacteria to recipient bacteria. Bacteriophage. Replication of an enveloped DNA virusThe viral DNA will be replicated andtranscribed by the host cell. The Herpesviridae are a large family of double-stranded DNA viruses responsible for many human and veterinary diseases. Strand displacement synthesis by RT to the PBS and PPT ends produces a blunt ended, linear dsDNA copy of the viral genome that includes long terminal repeats (LTRs) at both ends. - Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites. Coronavirus (CoV) genome replication takes place in the cytoplasm in a membrane-protected microenvironment, and starts with the translation of the genome to produce the viral replicase. Bacteriophages were jointly discovered by Frederick Twort (1915) in England and by Felix d'Herelle (1917) at the Pasteur Institute in France. Chapter 3: Molecular Biology Problems c) Based on the above data, which of the models (i, ii, or iii) in part (a) can you rule out? Explain your reasoning. An algorithm for in silico screening of genomes for endogenous non-retroviral insertions was developed. The viral genome is large,. Types of viral genome. Genome organization of soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV). DNA vaccines (gene vaccines). We selected all non-retroviral virus genera that infect mammals, and constructed a library of representative peptide sequences (restricted to viruses with typical genome sizes of <100 Kilobases (Kb)) (). Extracting DNA is a Science NetLinks lesson that provides students an opportunity to extract DNA. These viruses differ in how well they transfer genes to the cells they recognize and are able to infect, and whether they alter the cell’s DNA permanently or temporarily (see figure 2). It allows researchers to easily alter DNA sequences and modify gene function. In some, the viral genome is a single molecule of nucleic acid whereas in others, the viral genome exist on more than one molecule and it is said to be segmented. They are not related; however, AAV requires the presence of adenoviral genes E1, E4, E2a and VA for replication. Yellow fever virus rna is usually detected in blood of infected humans. How Are Viruses Named. Viruses are nucleic acid molecules surrounded by a protective coating. THE SECOND TRY AND BEYOND This time, so far, the gene therapy for SCID-X1 is effective and safe. Cell cycle of DNA viruses Visualisation of HSV-1 infection in live cells : the development of replication compartments by recruitment of ICP4, a protein known to be recruited onto replicating viral DNA. Dengue virus particle and microscopic picture of dengue viruses DENV is a 50-nm virus enveloped with a lipid membrane (see figure 1). PureLink Viral RNA/DNA purification Both spin-column and 96-well plate kits are designed for fast and easy isolation of viral RNA or DNA from cell-free samples such as serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and cell culture supernatant. PPT - What is Antiviral Drugs? Get Free Power point presentation on Antiviral Drugs which also includes slides of Antiviral Agents PPT, Antiviral Drug PPT, Antiviral Medication PPT, Disease Caused By Virus PPT, DNA Viruses PPT, Kinds Of Viruses and Virus Classification. unlikely that the invading viral DNA will have been methylated so it will be an appropriate target for cleavage. Two copies of the single-stranded RNA genome and the reverse transcriptase enzyme are shown enclosed within a protein capsid. If a viral infection threatens a bacterial cell, the CRISPR immune system can thwart the attack by destroying the genome of the invading virus [4]. Some viruses encode all proteins needed for DNA replication. A virus is a microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a biological organism. 5 to 6 h after infection. Solved examples with detailed answer description, explanation are given and it would be easy to understand. The Baltimore Scheme Baltimore's original scheme [Expression of animal virus genomes. the associated diseases (poliovirus, rabies) the type of disease caused (murine leukemia virus) the sites in the body affected or from which the virus was first isolated (rhinovirus, adenovirus). However, the genome was best described by a single promoter model. pdf), Text File (. The below info-graphic lists out the differences between DNA and RNA viruses. The genome of the virus includes genetic material that is necessary for the virus to continue replicating. Summary – DNA vs RNA Viruses. Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease. PureLink Viral RNA/DNA purification Both spin-column and 96-well plate kits are designed for fast and easy isolation of viral RNA or DNA from cell-free samples such as serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and cell culture supernatant. Our Integrated Cyber Defense Platform lets you focus on your priorities — digital transformations, supply chain security, cloud migration, you name it — knowing you are protected from end to end. For instance, DNA in humans determines such things as what color the eyes are and how the lungs work. Just like us, bacterial cells can be invaded by viruses, which are small, infectious agents. View and Download PowerPoint Presentations on Dna Viruses PPT. Release of new viruses. The 30 ppt is essential for viral replication, the central ppt probably increases the ability of the virus to complete plus-strand DNA synthesis, but is. So maybe most of it was the viral DNA, but it might have, when it transcribed and translated itself, it might have taken a little bit-- or at least when it translated or replicated itself-- it might take a little bit of the organism's previous DNA. Gelderblom General Concepts Structure and Function Viruses are small obligate intracellular parasites, which by definition contain either a RNA or DNA genome surrounded by a protective, virus-coded protein coat. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. PureLink Viral RNA/DNA purification Both spin-column and 96-well plate kits are designed for fast and easy isolation of viral RNA or DNA from cell-free samples such as serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and cell culture supernatant. African horse sickness (AHS) is a hemorrhagic viral fever of horses. They can change in two different ways. Viral genome is a linear 130-300 kb long (ds) DNA molecule. DNA is the material that carries all the information about how a living thing will look and function. Viral hepatitis types B and C can cause chronic hepatitis. Infections can develop in the neonate transplacentally, perinatally (from vaginal secretions or blood), or postnatally (from breast milk or other sources). ppt - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (. However, researchers often work with DNA copies (cDNA) of the virus’s genes and generally store information for genes as DNA sequences. This protein is then processed into a number of small molecules, each of them critical for the completion of the life cycle of the virus. Release - newly produced viruses are expelled from the host cell. The information garnered from sequencing will provide the raw data for the exploding field of bioinformatics, where computer science and biology live in symbiotic harmony. Host polymerase convert the (+)ssDNA viral genome into a covalently closed dsDNA called replicative form DNA (RF). Bacteriophage. Single Stranded DNA (ssDNA) vs Double Stranded DNA (dsDNA): Similarities and Differences ssDNA vs dsDNA - A Comparison Table The DNA molecules are not always double stranded helical structures, sometimes they occur in single stranded form called ssDNA. Capture and lysis of virus particles from very dilute solutions or cell-free samples is the first hurdle. Please select the correct answer and at the end of the test, you have to click on ' SUBMIT ' button to see your Score and the Correct Answers. They contain about 36 kb of double-stranded DNA. There is also a blank version where you can colour in the complementary bases yourself. Viral Chromosomes: Viruses contain either DNA or RNA as their genetic material. This test quantitates HBV DNA in serum or plasma with reflex to HBV genotype if ≥500 IU/mL is detected. Hence this datasheet will refer only to the TYLCV complex, not to the other, different, tomato begomoviruses. The icosahedral parvovirus particles contain just protein and DNA genome. Rao MD 10 11. Pete's PowerPoint Station is your destination for free PowerPoint presentations for kids and teachers about Viruses & Bacteria, and so much more. In a given area, microsatellites tend to be highly variable, making them ideal for DNA fingerprinting. This is an application that is being researched for its uses in humans to treat specific cells (since certain viruses only infect certain cells). Core dna is a SaaS product, meaning you’ll have no capital expenditure or fixed term contracts, no infrastructure to manage, and no upgrades to worry about. ppt - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (. The gene start, indicated by the small number in the upper left corner of each rectangle, normally records the position of the a in the ATG start codon for that gene, while the number in the lower right records the last position of the stop codon. RNA VIRUSES ALL SORTS OF STRATEGIES RNA Viruses All synthesize through a double stranded intermediate - RI - replication intermediate RNA dependent RNA polymerase of viral origin but may need host factors Termini contain recognition signals for replicase Positive strand viruses Begin with translation to produce replicase Makes more positive than negative strand Limiting factor or rapid. After attachment to a host-cell receptor, someenveloped viruses fuse with the animal cell'splasma membrane. This is an application that is being researched for its uses in humans to treat specific cells (since certain viruses only infect certain cells). Viruses are the smallest and simplest life form known. A virus is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, according to the kind of nucleic acid that makes up its genome. disease-causing agents that can multiply only in cells ; viruses are DNA or RNA enclosed by a protective coat that enables them to move from one cell to another. The IN protein mediates the insertion of the HIV proviral DNA into the genomic DNA of an infected cell. Early proteins typically play several roles in the viral life cycle, including the following. Viruses deposit their own genetic material into host cells to instruct those cells to make more viruses. The gene start, indicated by the small number in the upper left corner of each rectangle, normally records the position of the a in the ATG start codon for that gene, while the number in the lower right records the last position of the stop codon. 65 Progeny virions are assembled from replicated genomes, viral. Viral DNA replication is always delayed after infection because it requires the synthesis of at least one viral protein D. All free download. Viruses depend on the host cells that they infect to reproduce. 35b A retrovirus uses reverse transcription to incorporate its RNA into the host DNA. good source of pure DNA. The human genome is made up of over 3 billion of these genetic letters. The bacterium containing a prophage is immune to the infection by the same virus. The use of a protein from another virus to alter the tropism for a viral vector is referred to as pseudotyping. Define a virus as a biological entity and learn its properties. This is most prevalent among eukaryotic viruses, but a few prokaryotic RNA viruses are also known. l Most RNA viruses multiply in & are released from the cytoplasm. Adenovirus: Figure 16. Pete's PowerPoint Station is your destination for free PowerPoint presentations for kids and teachers about Viruses & Bacteria, and so much more. Viral hepatitis types B and C can cause chronic hepatitis. Shape of the DNA Molecule Although DNA looks like very thin long strings under a microscope, it turns out that DNA has a specific shape. virus in details [18]. This test quantitates HBV DNA in serum or plasma with reflex to HBV genotype if ≥500 IU/mL is detected. Microsatellites are short pieces of DNA which repeat many times in a given person's DNA. Nomenclature & classification of Plant Viruses Viruses are the entities whose genome is a nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA, which reproduce inside living cells and use their synthetic machinery to direct the synthesis of specialized particles, the virions which contain the viral genome and transfer it to other cells. Among RNA viruses and certain DNA viruses, the genome is often divided up into separate parts, in which case it is called segmented. Process of Recombinant DNA Technology involves extraction of gene followed by cleaving it at special sites. So maybe most of it was the viral DNA, but it might have, when it transcribed and translated itself, it might have taken a little bit-- or at least when it translated or replicated itself-- it might take a little bit of the organism's previous DNA. The basic two types of replication are conservative replication and semiconservative replication. The tRNA structure motifs at the 3′-ends of the RNAs are represented by a dark square, the methyl transferase (Met), Helicase (Hel) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) motifs by asterisks and the readthrough of the polymerase and coat protein ORFs by RT and an arrow. In humans, a copy of the entire genome—more than 3 billion DNA base pairs—is contained in all cells that have a nucleus. Please login to create a new submission or to see your existing submissions. gov for more information Where does Ebola hide? 2002- Fruit Bats Antibodies against Ebola Ebola Gene sequences in liver and spleen Fruit bats do not show any symptoms Best candidate to be the reservoir More research needs to be done Geography The link between human. Capture and lysis of virus particles from very dilute solutions or cell-free samples is the first hurdle. Extracting DNA is a Science NetLinks lesson that provides students an opportunity to extract DNA. This integrated viral DNA may then lie dormant, in the latent stage of HIV infection. Methods based on the detection of viral genome are also commonly known as molecular methods. Viral Replication Scott M. These viruses can insert genetic material at a specific site on chromosome 19 with near 100% certainty. GENOME SEQUENCING. ; The biggest difference between viruses and bacteria is that viruses must have a living host - like a plant or animal - to multiply, while most bacteria can grow on non-living surfaces. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. 1 2 3 Envelope Transcription of the provirus may also occur, producing RNA for new retrovirus genomes and RNA that codes for the retrovirus capsid and envelope proteins. One way influenza viruses change is called “antigenic drift. The replication of the genome is essential for the continuity of life. •Polyoma Tag binds specifically to DNA •Papilloma E1 binds to ori in presence of E2 •AAV Rep68/78 binds at ends and unwinds DNA, also involved in terminal resolution •Adenovirus pTP binds at terminus and recruits DNA polymerase •Herpesvirus UL9 protein recruits viral proteins to AT-rich ori’s and then unwinds DNA 17. Viral DNA extraction poses unique challenges for good recovery and detection sensitivity. However, the genome was best described by a single promoter model. Hepatitis B is a DNA Virus of the hepadnaviridae family of viruses. The molecular mechanism is very similar in all groups of organisms. 1 2 3 Envelope Transcription of the provirus may also occur, producing RNA for new retrovirus genomes and RNA that codes for the retrovirus capsid and envelope proteins. with human tissues and viral transcripts can be detected at frequencies lower than 1 in 1,000,000. Viruses are very small (submicroscopic) infectious particles (virions) composed of a protein coat and a nucleic acid core. DNA fingerprinting uses a specific type of DNA sequence, known as a microsatellite, to make identification much easier. RNA & DNA viruses :3 1. • Nucleocapsid: –viral nucleic acid + the protein coat that encloses it. The tRNA structure motifs at the 3′-ends of the RNAs are represented by a dark square, the methyl transferase (Met), Helicase (Hel) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) motifs by asterisks and the readthrough of the polymerase and coat protein ORFs by RT and an arrow. Blumberg Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia PA, USA HEPATITIS B VIRUS MORPHOLOGY Characteristics Nucleic acid: DNA Classification: hepadnavirus type 1 Serotypes: multiple In vivo replication: reverse transcription in liver and other tissues In vitro propagation: primary hepatocyte culture and transfection by cloned HBV DNA 42 nm 22 nm. HIV-1 Gene Map. Viral vectors are often designed for permanent incorporation of the insert into the host genome, and thus leave distinct genetic markers in the host genome after incorporating the transgene. RNA Viruses 4. of chromosome- Bacteria - 01 Human - 46 Garden Pea - 14 Chicken - 78 Maize - 20 Mouse - 40 Frog - 26 Total contour Length - 2 meter / Human cell 1. Requires host cell to reproduce E. DNA viruses usually use host cell proteins and enzymes to make additional DNA that is used to copy the genome or be transcribed to messenger RNA (mRNA), which is then used in protein synthesis. Each genome contains all of the information needed to build and maintain that organism. Summary – DNA vs RNA Viruses. There are two main types of influenza (flu) virus: Types A and B. To aid visualisation a conceptual and a real pictures are shown below:. Viral Genomes. This organization allows the virus to maximize production of structural genes, since viral assembly requires more structural proteins to be made than non-structural proteins. This arrangement is found at the ends of chromosomes from a number of different organisms. In a functional point of view, the HPV. Microbial whole-genome sequencing is an important tool for mapping genomes of novel organisms, finishing genomes of known organisms, or comparing genomes across multiple samples. coli cells,. • Describe the morphology and genome of poxviruses. UV radiation can cause dimerization of RNA, which prevents transcription by RNA polymerase. Get the facts on the history, symptoms, and treatment of Marburg virus disease, formerly known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever. • Expression of viral genes to produce viral structural and catalytic genes (e. PowerPoint templates are a collection of pre-designed presentation slide decks, which are designed to help save presenters time creating their PowerPoint slides from scratch. Viruses can replicate DNA and/or RNA, synthesize RNA from DNA or vice versa, but lack a complete system to make proteins, for which they have to rely on host cell. In the late 1990s, a novel circovirus emerged in North American swine that appeared to be genetically distinct from the prototype PCV (now referred to as PCV Type 1) and was termed PCV Type 2 (PCV2). 0 Photo Virus Classification And Description Classification Parameters PowerPoint Presentation Size of Viruses Comparison Between Cellular Genome and Viral Genome ssDNA Viruses dsDNA Viruses dsRNA Viruses Viruses With + strand RNA Genomes - ssRNA Viruses Viruses With Reverse. This causes no harm to the cell, but may alter its traits. So these viruses, they come in, they infect the cell, some of them actually insert themselves into our genome in order to take over the cell and start. However in practice, although the use of these methods is indeed increasing, the role played by molecular methods in a routine diagnostic virus laboratory is still small. Viral Genome Packaging • Another problem viruses must overcome is how to achieve the specificity required to select & encapsidate the virus genome from the large background of cellular nucleic acids. Virus DNA Hepatitis virus Herpes virus Characteristic Hepatitis Virus Hepatitis virus Produce acute inflammation of the liver In Chronic active hepatitis : Histologic change from inflammation and necrosis to collaps of the normal reticulum framework with bridging between the portal triads or terminal hepatic vein Resulting in a clinical illness Fever Gastrointestinal symptoms: nausea, vomite. Viruses, bacteria, protists & fungi (just the basics!) - parasites postponed until we discuss them in class. Yellow fever virus rna is usually detected in blood of infected humans. These technologies allow genetic material to be added, removed, or altered at particular locations in the genome. Partitioning is strictly controlled for low copy, but loose for high copy Plasmid replication requires host cell functions Copy number is regulated by initiation of plasmid replication 10. On June 22, 2000, UCSC and the other members of the International Human Genome Project consortium completed the first working draft of the human genome assembly, forever ensuring free public access to the genome and the information it contains. The IN protein mediates the insertion of the HIV proviral DNA into the genomic DNA of an infected cell. Efficient study design for accurate detection relies on the optimal amount of data representing a significant portion of a virus genome. (The pre-S1 region facilitates viral entry into hepatocytes. Free Healthcare PowerPoint Template This is a free Healthcare PowerPoint Template with a DNA illustration and a physician. General Virus Types: DNA and RNA. • Viruses have an inner core of nucleic acid surrounded by protein coat known as an envelope • Most viruses range in sizes from 20 – 250 nm • Viruses are inert (nucleoprotein ) filterable Agents • Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites. This is the microbiology questions and answers section on "DNA Replication" with explanation for various interview, competitive examination and entrance test. The human genome is comprised of 23 pairs of linear chromosomes, and approximately 3000 megabases (Mb) of DNA, while the genome of the bacterium Escherichia coli consists of a single 4. Introduction to Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) Summary This section is meant to serve as an introduction to adeno-associated viruses for colleagues who are relatively new to the field, but are interested in learning more about it. Penetration - virus injects its genome into host cell. These viruses differ in how well they transfer genes to the cells they recognize and are able to infect, and whether they alter the cell’s DNA permanently or temporarily (see figure 2). • What are the route transmission for adenoviruses? Which one is the most common? 5. Sequencing entire bacterial, viral, and other microbial genomes is important for generating accurate reference genomes. NOTE: The viral genome in the form of DNA stays in the cell's chromosome! This is the predominant reason for the persistence of. Review the Honors Biology Chapter 26 Populations power points: Chapter 26 Populations ppt honors bio , then complete the following worksheets: Chapter 26 Review Questions and Chapter 26 Practice Questions. An enormous amount of genomic structures can be seen among viral species. This protein is then processed into a number of small molecules, each of them critical for the completion of the life cycle of the virus. You also find that this virus can infect E. After attachment to a host-cell receptor, someenveloped viruses fuse with the animal cell'splasma membrane. The use of next-generation sequencing has become an established method for virus detection. 1 What is the Hepatitis B Virus. Virus - Virus - Viral DNA integration: Many bacterial and animal viruses lie dormant in the infected cell, and their DNA may be integrated into the DNA of the host cell chromosome. Just remember that DNA is the instruction manual for an organism. Viral DNA replication is always delayed after infection because it requires the synthesis of at least one viral protein 4. The proportion of mutant mitochondria can vary heteroplasmy. PPT – INFLUENZA A VIRUS GENOME PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 3e7c9-NjdjZ. " These are small changes (or mutations) in the genes of influenza viruses that can lead to changes in the surface proteins of the virus: HA (hemagglutinin) and NA (neuraminidase). During DNA replication, both strands of the double helix act as templates for the formation of new DNA molecules. DNA replication occurs in viral fac- tories or virosomes, localized regions within the cytoplasm which are devoid of cellular organelles and serve as foci of DNA synthesis and virion morphogenesis. Viral polymerases play a central role in viral genome replication and transcription. DNA vaccines (gene vaccines). cent virus (10) is circularly permuted and terminally redundant. Replication of an enveloped DNA virusThe viral DNA will be replicated andtranscribed by the host cell. Induction of cell death was cell autonomous and required RNA synthesis but not viral DNA replication. • The viral genome or part of it is retained, but infectious virus is usually not produced. Many viral and non-viral methods for delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing tools has been recently developed (reviewed in 26, 27, 28). Blog Post February 15, 2016 Three CRISPR Approaches for Mouse Genome Editing Peter Kelmenson In the few short years since Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) were first described, their use in editing the mouse genome has exploded. Recombinant DNA has been gaining in importance over the last few years, and recombinant DNA will only become more important in the 21st century as genetic. To actively produce the virus, certain cellular transcription factors need to be present. This process is mediated by three distinct functions of IN. E1 is a DNA helicase/ATPase in-volved in viral genome replication while E2 is a transcription factor that binds to four sites within the viral noncoding region and recruits E1 to the viral origin of replica-tion. Nomenclature & classification of Plant Viruses Viruses are the entities whose genome is a nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA, which reproduce inside living cells and use their synthetic machinery to direct the synthesis of specialized particles, the virions which contain the viral genome and transfer it to other cells. DNA or RNA + capsomers and other structural proteins = nucleocapsid (no host membrane) enveloped nucleocapsid + host membrane with viral-specified glycoproteins = enveloped virus; size. hungatei strain JF1 is the first completely sequenced genome of the family Methanospirillaceae, and it has a circular genome of 3,544,738 bp containing 3,239 protein coding and 68.